Based on the second one of guiding questions in module #4, we should know about what new media and cultural commons are. As Henry Jenkins said, “new media technologies have lowered production and distribution costs, expanded the range of available delivery channels and enabled consumers to archive, annotate, appropriate and recirculate media content in powerful new ways.” And according to reading guide, cultural commons means everyone can share and transform resources any time and ant where, this exists in the new media.

Nowadays, there are more and more new forms of media, most of them are advanced online media technologies. Everything can express on the Internet and people can share information with each other by using them. Because of convenience of the Internet, there is a problem to come up with which is how to keep balance between consume products or practices online and keep copyrights to producers. In the early periods, people did not notice the copyright or patent, and there were many different products which have same elements somehow. At the present, people can consume products and  information online, and there is also the very restrictive copyright law which people address their interests no matter what for inventor or economic agencies. For example, people do not cite or quote or consume others’ works directly without available permission. If you write some academic papers, you will use online materials when you need, you should make references and point out the original writers. When people share  videos with others, they can found there is the original link with them and know where videos come from. These are ways to keep balance between consuming products and keeping copyrights. Another example, we always are asked to hand our papers in by professors, this is a system which can check whether people violate others’ copyrights. Because there are a huge numbers of materials online to use, this system can filter out which materials are and where they come from online. Thus, students use others’ content very carefully because this system can check them out.

The other aspect, as Toby Miller said that there are many potential risks for investment in the new market because it is a free and open market style. There are any restrictions to invest, it leads to blind investments easily and destroy the whole market and economy. This is the same as online behaviors by consumers and producers. If there is no copyright law, I believe that the whole internet market is unbalanced. Therefore, that is why there are many limit accessible links when you want to enter into websites, and even though you can use and consume everything online, you still found that those original links with them.

In conclude, consumers and producers can respect others’ patents and use references when they face with the restrictive copyright law, and I think this law is a necessity in the virtual world.


Jenkins, H. (2004) The Cultural Logic of Media Convergence. International Journal of Cultural Studies March 2004 7: 33-43
Miller, T. (2004) A view from a fossil. International Journal Of Cultural Studies, 7(1), 55-65.